My last posting about targeted alpha therapy discussed the expense of preparing a sample of radioactive actinium, aside from which, targeted alpha therapy should be a very effective and specific and hopefully affordable cancer therapy. Quentin Pankhurst of the London Centre for Nanotechnology has been working with particles of iron oxide, which has very low toxicity and can be attached to antibodies just like the actinium atoms in cages. Iron oxide can be magnetized so each particle can be a permanent magnet. A magnetized particle can then be detected from outside the body using a weak EM field generated by a hand-held device, or it can be heated with a strong EM field, to the point of destroying the cancer cell .
By combining the iron oxide particle with an antibody for the HER2 protein found in breast cancer cells, Pankhurst should be able to achieve the same specificity and effectiveness that Sloan-Kettering has gotten with radioactive actinium, at vastly lesser cost. In order to commercialize this and related applications, Pankhurst has founded Endomagnetics, a start-up based in Houston, Texas.
Why should iron oxide be so much less expensive than radioactive actinium? "Iron oxide" is the chemical name for rusty metal, which is easy to make and store, and readily available in auto scrap yards everywhere. Actinium-225, the isotope used for TAT, has a half-life of ten days, so you can't make a big batch and store some for later use. According to this website at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: "The actinium-225 is formed from radioactive decay of radium-225, the decay product of thorium-229, which is obtained from decay of uranium-233. The National depository of uranium-233 is at ORNL, and we have developed effective methods for obtaining thorium-229 (half-life 7340 years) as our feed material to routinely obtain actinium-225."