In December I went to a two-day session on Hibernate and Spring, and it was full of mysterious jargon that made me sleepy: dependency injection, inversion of control, aspects, object-relational mapping, convention over configuration, blah blah blah. I kept at it, though, looking at Rails and later Django. I'm now waist-deep in building a MySQL-backed Django site. What I learned is that (A) all these web app frameworks are remarkably similar to one another, and (B) those jargon terms are a lot simpler than they seem.
Inversion of control means that the framework makes calls into your app code, rather than you calling the framework from a main() function. Dependency injection is a set of tricks to minimize dependencies between different Java source files. Aspects are Java tricks that you can do by wrapping your methods in other methods with the same signatures, a lot like decorators in Python. Object-relational mapping is creating classes to represent your DB tables: each instance represents a row, each column is represented by a setter and getter. The MVC pattern gives the lay of the land for all these frameworks, and all the presentation stuff I talked about before is limited to the "view" piece.
As I find my footing in the basics, I start to notice where the interesting bits of more advanced topics pop up. If I put a Django app and a Mediawiki on the same server, can I do a single sign-on for both of them? I think I can, by writing an AuthPlugin extension to make the Mediawiki accept Django's authentication cookie.
Don't ask Django to serve a PHP page because it doesn't include a PHP interpreter (what mod_php does for Apache). Your Apache config file must deal with PHP files before routing to Django.
AliasMatch /([^/]*\.php) ..../phpdir/$1 WSGIScriptAlias / ..../djangodir/django.wsgi
One thing I haven't quite understood is why the Django community seems to love Prototype and hate jQuery. Is that just because Prototype is included in the standard Django package? Is it purely historical, with jQuery the abandoned but superior Betamax to Prototype's VHS?